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  • Writer's pictureSuzhou Zanying

Textile Fiber Analysis — Introduction

Updated: Aug 24, 2023

Many products in life are made of fabrics. Fabrics are mostly made up of yarns, which in turn are made up of fibers. So fiber is the basic raw material and constituent element of many products. The type, form, performance and quality of fibers directly affect the style, performance, quality and price of fabrics and final products.

What is fiber?

Fiber is a polymer compound formed by the aggregation of the most basic long-chain macromolecules relying on the interaction force between them. In form, it is a substance whose diameter is usually in the range of several microns to tens of microns, and whose length is several times or even dozens of times larger than the diameter. Not all fibers can be used for spinning and weaving.

textile fiber
Zooming in on the fabric gives a clear view of the fibers that make up the yarn.

Fiber Classification

Fibers can be classified in many ways. But it is mainly divided into natural fibers and man-made fibers. See the table below for details.

Fiber Classification
Fiber Classification

In addition, according to the appearance, it can be divided into filament and short fiber, thick fiber and thin fiber, round cross-section fiber and special-shaped cross-section fiber, bright fiber and dull fiber, white fiber and colored fiber, etc. With the development of textile technology and the improvement of people's taste, there are new fibers such as ordinary fibers and differential fibers, functional fibers, and high-performance fibers.

Textile Fiber Analysis

Textile fiber analysis is to identify various fibers by using physical or chemical methods according to the appearance, morphological characteristics and intrinsic properties of various fiber raw materials.

Microscope Observation
Microscope Observation

There are many methods of analysis. Some of them require specialized equipment. For example: X-ray diffraction test, infrared absorption spectrum test, birefringence test, etc. These tests cannot be done independently at home. We will share 5 simple methods in future articles: sensory identification, burn test, microscope observation, chemical dissolution test, melting point test.Based on these 5 methods, we will teach you to identify 9 kinds of fibers: cotton, linen, wool, silk, viscose, polyester, nylon, acrylic, and vinylon. So that you can quickly identify these commonly used fibers when purchasing fabrics in the future.

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